Glossary

A

Acrobat
Acrobat ADOBE Utility converting any document in PDF format.

Accountability

Principle according to which the natural and legal persons, as well as the community, are responsible for their actions and must be accountable.

ADSL
Assymetric Digital Subscriber Line Technology for internet access allowing high speed data exchange.


AFNOR
French institution responsible for standardisation, and a member of ISO (International Standard Organisation).
Produces standards whose classification number begins with "NF": NF K 11-111 and NF K 11-112. These standards govern the manufacture of the cheque in Euros and its overall manufacturing environment respectively.


AFP
Architecture developed by IBM, consisting of a group of programs and applications for printing or display on all types of peripheral devices.They allow you to create, format, archive, view, distribute and print information. The resulting files are referred to as AFPDS "Advanced Function Presentation Data Stream". As a dataflow used for the printing of data, it includes composed text, page sections, definitions of forms and fonts.


Analog
This refers to a system which materialises information via a signal which is variable in form but continuous. In contrast, a digital system represents information via a binary code using "1s" and "0s".

API
A language or message format used by an application program to communicate with the operating system or another control program, such as a database management system or a communication protocol. Technically, APIs consist of function calls, accompanied by parameters to be communicated on the exterior of the application.

Archiving
The action of collecting, classifying and storing information so it can be consulted at a later date. Archiving is a function in itself, which should not be confused with backing-up, nor with electronic document management. The data being archived requires a suitable, reliable, weather resistant and sufficiently secure medium.
- Organisational measure with the aim of identifying, making secure and available all the documents which are binding for a business or an organisation with regard to third parties or which relate to its future activity and would represent a risk if they were not able to be presented.

ASP
Application Service Provider. Software applications hosted on a server and accessible for rental, via the Internet or any other similar connection, through a supplier.


Automatic Document Recognition
Automatic Document Recognition. -Technique allowing to distinguish between the different types of documents from an image of the document, and thus, to implement electronic sorting of images to classify them. The images are then grouped and classified in the EDM. In addition to the Automatic Document Reading technology, the Automatic Document Recognition allows to recognise the types of documents to help their indexing in the EDM system.


Authentication
Operation by which the recipient and/or the sender of a message verifies the identity of their interlocutor and equivalence bet Automatic Document Reading
The Automatic Document Reading consists of recognising and extracting information on paper forms (surveys, invoices, various mail...) to turn them into data useable by an IT system. It uses optical character recognition (OCR) techniques to capture, for example in an invoice, the sender's name, date, amount excluding tax, VAT... Using the Automatic Document Reading is justified when it is necessary to automate daily processing of large volumes of documents using production scanners.
Application of conversion of paper documents into images and characters data. An application of Automatic Document Reading can recognise marks, printed characters, boxed characters, handwritten print characters, handwritten words.


Accession
Action of transferring physical preservation, the property or responsibility of documents.


Message authentication
The action of checking that a message has been sent intact by the presumed sender to the intended recipient.


B


Back-Up
Emergency copy of a file


Barcode
A code made up of vertical black bars, allowing identification via optical scanning.
The main codes are called EAN8, EAN13, code 39, code 128 and interleaved 2/5… Some codes are strictly numeric, others are alphanumeric. They may include a security code.


Batch composition
Automated mass composition based on management rules and data from the information system.


Bandwidth
Measurement of speed corresponding to the maximal volume of information which can be processed by the same peripheral device (O/S byte/second, kB/s, mB/s, gB/s).


BCP (Business Continuity Plan)
A BCP ensures through IT, technical and organisational means the activity continuation despite natural disasters and social risks.


Bank cheque
Created in 1865 for business environments, rich inhabitants of cities and large traders, the bank cheque became more accessible and the subject of the success with which we are familiar. The price of its success was forgery. With the search for secure manufacturing methods, it was fairly quickly given some breathing space. However, and despite the security surrounding it, France is the only European country to have remained attached to it, with billions of copies in circulation. In Germany there aren't any cheques; in Italy and Great Britain, the cheque is still little used; in Belgium, it disappeared when a charge was made for using it.


BIT
Binary Digit. A binary entity which can take on two stable states (0/1, open/closed, switched on/switched off. By convention, the reference state should be fixed.


Black
Use of printing technologies for integrating variable elements in black.
BPO (Business Process Outsourcing)
BPO refers to the outsourcing of a part of the business process. It generally includes a large technological component and the hosting of the client's business software.
Complex BPO = BPO + Business software in SaaS mode + Document factory => Launch plan by Numen Business Services.


C


Certification of conformity
Action by which a third party demonstrates that they are reasonably entitled to expect that a product, a process or a service duly identified complies with a standard, a service or a reference document or any other specified document.


CFONB
French Committee for Banking Organisation and Standardisation.


CFT
Cross File Transfer. File management and transfer software.
Client-Server
An architecture based on a concept of the division of processing and data over a collection of systems including central servers, departmental servers and microcomputers or local networks.


CIE
Cheque Image Exchange. Cheques below the amount of 5,000 euros are no longer sent to the paying bank, but are retained by the beneficiary's bank. Cheques remitted for encashment are sorted and digitised by the bank itself or by a specialist service provider. An electronic file of the cheques to be encashed is produced, with identification of the paying bank, the number of the account to be debited and the number of the account to be credited. This file is transmitted by the bank to the ICS (Interbank Clearing System). Once the cheque has been sent to the ICS, the beneficiary's bank can credit their account. Likewise, the paying bank must immediately debit the account of its client. If that is not possible (lack of funds, closed account), the bank records the movement in a suspense account and issues a rejection message to the ICS.


CMC7
Magnetic characters composed of 7 digits (bars) governed by an ISO standard. Magnetic and non-optical scanning (unlike barcodes and OCRs).
Specific marking on the issuance of cheques allowing the cheque to be processed for clearing.


CMYK - Cyan-Magenta-Yellow-Black
A technique of colour reproduction using 4 basic components, unlike the RGB model (Red-Green-Blue) which only uses 3.

 

Acrobat

Acrobat  ADOBE Utility converting any document in PDF format.

ADSL

Assymetric Digital Subscriber Line Technology for internet access allowing high speed data exchange. 

AFNOR

French institution responsible for standardisation, and a member of ISO (International Standard Organisation).
Produces standards whose classification number begins with "NF": NF K 11-111 and NF K 11-112. These standards govern the manufacture of the cheque in Euros and its overall manufacturing environment respectively.

AFP

Architecture developed by IBM, consisting of a group of programs and applications for printing or display on all types of peripheral devices.They allow you to create, format, archive, view, distribute and print information. The resulting files are referred to as AFPDS "Advanced Function Presentation Data Stream". As a dataflow used for the printing of data, it includes composed text, page sections, definitions of forms and fonts.

Analog

This refers to a system which materialises information via a signal which is variable in form but continuous. In contrast, a digital system represents information via a binary code using "1s" and "0s".

API

A language or message format used by an application program to communicate with the operating system or another control program, such as a database management system or a communication protocol. Technically, APIs consist of function calls, accompanied by parameters to be communicated on the exterior of the application.

Archiving

The action of collecting, classifying and storing information so it can be consulted at a later date. Archiving is a function in itself, which should not be confused with   backing-up, nor with electronic document management. The data being archived requires a suitable, reliable, weather resistant and sufficiently secure medium.

- Organisational measure with the aim of identifying, making secure and available all the documents which are binding for a business or an organisation with regard to third parties or which relate to its future activity and would represent a risk if they were not able to be presented.

ASP

Application Service Provider. Software applications hosted on a server and accessible for rental, via the Internet or any other similar connection, through a supplier. 

Automatic Document Recognition

Automatic Document Recognition. -Technique allowing to distinguish between the different types of documents from an image of the document, and thus, to implement electronic sorting of images to classify them. The images are then grouped and classified in the EDM. In addition to the Automatic Document Reading technology, the Automatic Document Recognition allows to recognise the types of documents to help their indexing in the EDM system.

 

Authentication

Operation by which the recipient and/or the sender of a message verifies the identity of their interlocutor and equivalence bet Automatic Document Reading

The Automatic Document Reading consists of recognising and extracting information on paper forms (surveys, invoices, various mail...) to turn them into data useable by an IT system. It uses optical character recognition (OCR) techniques to capture, for example in an invoice, the sender's name, date, amount excluding tax, VAT... Using the Automatic Document Reading is justified when it is necessary to automate daily processing of large volumes of documents using production scanners.

Application of conversion of paper documents into images and characters data. An application of Automatic Document Reading can recognise marks, printed characters, boxed characters, handwritten print characters, handwritten words.

Accession

Action of transferring physical preservation, the property or responsibility of documents.

Message authentication

The action of checking that a message has been sent intact by the presumed sender to the intended recipient.

B

Back-Up 

Emergency copy of a file

Barcode

A code made up of vertical black bars, allowing identification via optical scanning.

The main codes are called EAN8, EAN13, code 39, code 128 and interleaved 2/5… Some codes are strictly numeric, others are alphanumeric. They may include a security code.

Batch composition

Automated mass composition based on management rules and data from the information system. 

Bandwidth

Measurement of speed corresponding to the maximal volume of information which can be processed by the same peripheral device (O/S byte/second, kB/s, mB/s, gB/s). 

BCP (Business Continuity Plan)

A BCP ensures through IT, technical and organisational means the activity continuation despite natural disasters and social risks.

Bank cheque

Created in 1865 for business environments, rich inhabitants of cities and large traders, the bank cheque became more accessible and the subject of the success with which we are familiar. The price of its success was forgery. With the search for secure manufacturing methods, it was fairly quickly given some breathing space. However, and despite the security surrounding it, France is the only European country to have remained attached to it, with billions of copies in circulation. In Germany there aren't any cheques; in Italy and Great Britain, the cheque is still little used; in Belgium, it disappeared when a charge was made for using it.  

BIT

Binary Digit. A binary entity which can take on two stable states (0/1, open/closed, switched on/switched off. By convention, the reference state should be fixed. 

Black

Use of printing technologies for integrating variable elements in black.

BPO (Business Process Outsourcing)

BPO refers to the outsourcing of a part of the business process. It generally includes a large technological component and the hosting of the client's business software.
Complex BPO = BPO + Business software in SaaS mode + Document factory => Launch plan by Numen Business Services.

C

Certification of conformity

Action by which a third party demonstrates that they are reasonably entitled to expect that a product, a process or a service duly identified complies with a standard, a service  or a reference document or any other specified document.

CFONB

French Committee for Banking Organisation and Standardisation.

CFT 

Cross File Transfer. File management and transfer software. 

Client-Server

An architecture based on a concept of the division of processing and data over a collection of systems including central servers, departmental servers and microcomputers or local networks.

CIE 

Cheque Image Exchange. Cheques below the amount of 5,000 euros are no longer sent to the paying bank, but are retained by the beneficiary's bank. Cheques remitted for encashment are sorted and digitised by the bank itself or by a specialist service provider. An electronic file of the cheques to be encashed is produced, with identification of the paying bank, the number of the account to be debited and the number of the account to be credited. This file is transmitted by the bank to the ICS (Interbank Clearing System). Once the cheque has been sent to the ICS, the beneficiary's bank can credit their account. Likewise, the paying bank must immediately debit the account of its client. If that is not possible (lack of funds, closed account), the bank records the movement in a suspense account and issues a rejection message to the ICS. 

CMC7 

Magnetic characters composed of 7 digits (bars) governed by an ISO standard. Magnetic and non-optical scanning (unlike barcodes and OCRs).
Specific marking on the issuance of cheques allowing the cheque to be processed for clearing. 

CMYK - Cyan-Magenta-Yellow-Black

A technique of colour reproduction using 4 basic components, unlike the RGB model (Red-Green-Blue) which only uses 3.

Content Management
All of the methods and techniques which enable the production, distribution, management, sharing and searching of information in all forms and of all kinds in information systems through collaborative tools.

Confidentiality

A necessity linked to security of information, aimed at prohibiting access to certain data for non-authorised persons or entities.

Cryptography

A discipline which encompasses the principles, means and methods for the transformation of data, with the aim of providing, together or separately, services for confidentiality of content, detection of alteration, and/or prevention of unauthorised use.  

Continuous printing

The paper is fed continuously or in batches (or packets or fanfolds) or in reels (with or without perforation of fanfolds) in single or double width.

In reels only, the paper can be fed using a pin feed system with caroll (contraction of carry and roll) bands which may or may not be detachable (it's better if they are not) or without caroll bands and in pin-less mode..

The running direction of the paper is crucial in our continuous feed machine depending on the type of mailing, when managing dynamic personalisation with a random content in 2 up mode. 

Content Management

All of the methods and techniques which enable the production, distribution, management, sharing and searching of information in all forms and of all kinds in information systems through collaborative tools.

Cheque-letter

Document composed of two parts: a letter part, which is left completely free to the customer, and a detachable cheque that is standardised and customised.

Customisation

Adaptation of a message content depending on the recipient. Ranges from the simple insertion of the name until the complete layout (texts, images, graphics, tables...) from 1 to n pages.

D

Database

A structured collection of information, stored in fields of a determined type (date, digital, text...) connected to each other via runtime software and accessible through a specific software program.
Technologically speaking, Numen relies today more and more on SQL bases.

Data matrix

Visual system for identification of a product: 2 dimensional reading technology, allowing a lot of information to be stored (2335 alphanumeric characters and 3116 numerical characters) in a very small surface area. It incorporates a reading error correction system (security).

DBMS
Database management system.

DDE  

Dynamic Data Exchange. A Windows internal file exchange standard. It enables dynamic data exchange between two applications, one being the client and the other the server.

Desktop publishing

Term which comprises the entire design process of paper documents produced by information systems. 

Deposit of cheque

The deposit of cheque is a document issued by the Bank and provided to its customers to make the processing of cheques deposited to the Bank easier. The details of amounts, different cheque paying agencies are written on the deposit.

Distribution 

All of the services which allow the optimisation of document distribution by different channels: paper and/or digital with different levels of security, to be made available via a web or mobile portal.

Dynamic composition

Program for the formatting of variable data and fixed elements for a document, different for each recipient. You can change the texts, images, graphics, size of tables and number of pages in a document…

Digitisation

Scanning of paper documents to convert them to digital files. This phase is preceded by a stage of preparation and sorting of documents

Digital distribution

Distribution of documents by electronic means either towards a server to create availability or directly to an end user.

DPC

Declaration of practices of certification. A document describing the practices which a certification authority employs when issuing certificates. 

DPO (Document process outsourcing)

 Signifies the outsourcing of document life-cycle management processes
Refers mainly to "means of production" oriented activities.

DPI

 "Dots per inch": measuring unit for the definition of a printed image, displayed or digitised.

E

EDM

"Electronic Document Management": Its basic functions cover digitising, indexing of key-words and complete texts and information searches. Today, digitised documents and electronic files merge into a digital flow which circulates in the company in accordance with configurable workflow processes.

"Electronic Document Management" ranges from creation to destruction, and includes modification, publication and distribution in such a way as to optimise acess to the document, the information it contains and the information concerning it.  By extension, the term EDM also refers to software programs and associated methodologies which allow the management of paperless documents to be taken into account, whether they are digital documents ("imaging") or documents of electronic origin (for example office documents, and printing flows). Setting up an EDM tool involves a functional and architectural dimension, and consequently turns into an ambitious project, which allows existing organisational processes to be reviewed and improved. Two terms are generally used to define a collection of tools and techniques which allow information and documents to be organised and managed within an organisation.

EDM of information and documents for business

Electronic Management of information and existing documents.

-  EDM is often categorised in different fields :
- Administrative EDM dedicated to the classification of electronic administrative documents.
- Automated office EDM dedicated to the production and sharing of documents in a working group and to digital archiving operations.
- Documentary EDM dedicated to the indexing of documentary resources.
- Technical EDM, dedicated to the managment of technical documents, specific to a particular occupation.

Electronic certificate

Electronic certification confirming the identity of the signatory. 

Electronic archiving of probative value

Electronic document archiving in a secure computerised environment with a process incorporating signature, certification and date and time stamping on a non-rewritable and non-modifiable medium. Producing items of proof in order to confer the same legal value to an electronic document as to a piece of writing on paper.

Electronic Archiving

The electronic/computerised archiving of objects on computerised media (see above). 

Electronic signature

Set of data in electronic form related to a file that is used as an authentication method.
It must meet the following requirements:
- be bound only to the signatory
- allowing to identify the signatory
- be created by means that the signatory can maintain under its exclusive control

Encrypter 

Equipment for coding (or numbering) data for reasons of confidentiality. 

ESI

Équipe Système d’Information/Information System Team. 

ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning)

An ERP includes all or part of the applications required for the management of the company, horizontal (accounting, payroll, invoicing...) or vertical management applications (production management, stock management...).

Ethernet

Standard OSI connection protocol, used for local networks. 

Extraction 

Recovery of data from a base, in order to make it available to other applications. 

F

Forwarding 

Encompasses the operations of cutting, trimming, perforation, stapling, folding bursting, and binding.

FNTC

Fédération Nationale des Tiers de Confiance/National Federation of Trusted Third Parties.

FTP

File Transfert Protocol. Protocol used on the Internet for the transfer of files functioning on TCP-IP protocols. 

Full text search

Search on all the document words. It is generally performed on files on which character recognition (OCR) was done, unless it is in a format that lends itself to this type of search as the original office files or PDF files.

G

Groupware 

All of the methods and techniques for teamworking, these methods and techniques being "orchestrated" by software tools designed to improve the mechani

X

X